Orientation Surveys: Rocks

Periodic Table of Elements and Conversion Factors

Perhaps a bit unconventional for these blog posts, but I want this to revolve front and center around this amazing resource I found from ALS Labs in the depths of my hard drive… a periodic table of the elements that contains information about the types of digestions required to liberate each element (note that photon assay is…

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Orientation Study: Residual Soil Geochemistry

Orientation Study Residual Soil Geochemistry

As discussed in our first installment, orientation studies should enable the selection of optimum field, laboratory and interpretation procedures. Ideally, these procedures should allow for the clear resolution of significant anomalous patterns, with as little overlap as possible between anomalous and background populations. Below is a list of some of the most important factors that…

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January: A Month of Orientation Surveys

Stages of a Geochemistry Program

Orientation survey. Of course you *should* know what this term means… you think to yourself… Stop googling for half baked answers and stay tuned this January to our blog, where we are going to break down this term and show you how to put together some really simple programs that will ultimately return value to…

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Beam Diameter and X-ray Penetration Diagram

Haven’t conducted a pXRF program in awhile? No worries, this post has you covered… to remind you to never ever forget to calibrate your equipment. Like any geochemical program, you’re also going to need to setup a rigorous QA/QC program complete with standards (matrix-matched certified reference material), blanks (pure quartz) and duplicates.  QA/QC Theory Successful…

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Spectralucation July: Beyond Porphyry-Epithermal

Spectralucation July Beyond Porphyry Epithermal

A common comment that we receive is that ‘spectral is great for porphyry and epithermal, but it cannot help with other deposits.’ At LKI Consulting, we wholeheartedly disagree with this statement so for our last Spectralucation July post we would like to debunk some myths and explore the range of deposit types that are seen…

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Spectralucation July: Using Spectral Composition Data

Spectralucation July Using Spectral Composition Data

If you are unaware, hyperspectral data is renown for producing mineral data; biotite, white mica, tourmaline, sulfates, carbonates, Fe-oxides… the list is long and diverse. However, spectral datasets also yield “composition” data, namely crystallinity and wavelength data. In this post we’re going to focus on some of the more common features and mineral groups they…

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Spectralucation July: Why Are Plants Green

Spectralucation July Why Are Plants Green Graph

Fig. 1. Montmorillonite spectra celebrating Spectalucation July. The y-axis is reflectance (%) and the x-axis is wavelength (nm). Our blog posts thus far have concentrated more on geochemistry and general themes so we thought for July… let’s get into some spectral topics to break up either the extreme heat that we’re feeling at our home…

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Electrochemistry & Invisible Gold in Pyrite

Electrochemistry Invisible Gold in Pyrite

Although characteristic of Carlin-type deposits, invisible Au in pyrite is also observed in epithermal (low- and high-sulfidation) and porphyry deposits. Some famous examples include Yanacocha (Peru), Pueblo Viejo (Dominican Republic), Brucejack (Canada), Lihir (Papua New Guinea), and Dexing (China). Perhaps most interestingly… invisible Au has also been found in the epithermal system at the active…

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De-risking the Mining Value Chain Using Hyperspectral Technology

De risking the Mining Value Chain Graph

Accurate and consistent mineralogy is one of the fundamental building blocks of exploration. The explorationist talks and dreams about discovery – in order to do this, they must define vectors towards mineralization, while simultaneously de-risking and increasing the net present value (NPV) of a project. The interpretation of hyperspectral data (i.e. absolute mineral identification, compositional…

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Hyperspectral, Geochemistry & Gangue Mineralogy

Closeup shot of the white stone

In comparison to their more shiny (and valuable) mineral counterparts, gangue mineralogy tends to be unloved by geologists. In our rush to define grade for market releases, we lose sight of the fact that gangue mineralogy impacts our final product (i.e., mines) dramatically.  What is gangue in CAPEX and OPEX terms? Gangue minerals are the…

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